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Understanding Psychology 14th Edition by Robert Feldman, ISBN-13: 978-1260194524



  • Format: PDF
  • Publisher: ‎ McGraw Hill; 14th edition (September 24, 2018)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 784 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 1260194523
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-1260194524

A major change in this new edition is an increased commitment to covering diversity. A new concluding module called “Epilogue: Diversity, Culture, Conflict, and Cooperation” addresses questions of how diversity affects individual behavior, how we observe and understand other people, and how our understandings (and misunderstandings) of our differences can lead to cooperation and/or conflict. Beyond the Epilogue, every chapter has a section called “Exploring Diversity,” which examines how diversity affects psychology and vice-versa. These sections address ways to incorporate the concepts of diversity and culture across the curriculum as well as ways we can interact more effectively in this country and the world. In addition, the following information about new and revised topics and textual changes, including new definitions based on heat map data, provides a good indication of the content’s currency and clarification for students.

Chapter 1—Introduction to Psychology
• Included new data on international versus U.S. psychologists
• Added a new figure on where psychologists work
• Clarified the concept of race
• Described race as a social construction
• Clarified the meaning of individual differences
• Clarified the meaning of universal principles
• Clarified introspection
• Redefined structuralism
• Redefined behavioral neuroscience
• Expanded the graphical timeline
• Noted discrepancies in salary and prestige between male and
female psychologists
• Noted the impact of psychology on social policy
Chapter 2—Psychological Research
• Explained the use of Facebook in research
• Clarified the definition of theory
• Clarified the inability of correlational research to show causality
• Clarified experimental manipulation
• Clarified significant outcome
• Added a new example relating to the evaluation of research
Chapter 3—Neuroscience and Behavior
• Explained hydrogel-embedding methods of brain scanning
• Added new information on using computers to assist movement in
• Added research on cortical thickness and student income-level
• Clarified the definition of dendrite
• Redefined terminal button
• Clarified the process of neurotransmission
• Redefined neurotransmitter
• Added a new definition of reuptake
• Clarified the acetylcholine description
• Clarified the description of motor neurons
• Clarified transcranial magnetic stimulation
• Clarified reticular formation
• Added a new definition of neuroplasticity
• Reorganized the description of lateralization of hemispheres of
• Added information on brain-computer interface
Chapter 4—Sensation and Perception
• Clarified the description of light waves
• Clarified information on feature detection and specialization of
receptors of visual information
• Clarified afterimage implications for trichromatic theory
• Clarified the place theory of hearing
• Clarified auditory neurons specialization
• Defined reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome
• Clarified gate–control theory
• Clarified biofeedback as a means to control pain
• Clarified synesthesia
• Redefined motion parallax
• Updated information on cognitive factors in pain perception
• Added a feature on the use of dogs’ sensory capabilities for
• Enhanced the discussion of echolocation
• Updated statistics on chronic pain
• Introduced new synesthesia cases
• Introduced new information on inner speech and daydreaming
Chapter 5—States of Consciousness
• Included information on the opioid epidemic
• Added a new figure for sleep needs by age
• Discussed reverse learning and synaptic pruning as functions of
• Clarified the definition of nightmares
• Added information on the frequency of nightmares
• Changed the stages of sleep from four to three, reflecting the
American Academy of Sleep Medicine change
• Clarified the experience of waking consciousness while
• Clarified changes in electrical activity during hypnosis
• Clarified the controversy regarding the nature of hypnosis
• Clarified the use of hypnosis in pain relief
• Discussed long-term effects of meditation on heart disease
• Clarified psychologists’ motivation for studying consciousness
• Added an example of opioid addict whose addiction started with
• Discussed reasons for the increase in deaths due to opioid
• Clarified the difference between opioids and opiates
• Clarified reasons why people seek out drug highs
• Discussed Adderall use by college students
• Added new figure on drug use
• Clarified information on the use of cocaine and crack
• Clarified the definition of hallucinogens
• Discussed the expanded legalization of marijuana
• Clarified MDMA use
Chapter 6—Learning
• Added a feature on the use of learning principles by Uber and
• Added a new prologue on training dogs for medical purposes
Page xxxi
• Clarified the classical conditioning figure
• Clarified neutral stimulus
• Clarified the description of classical conditioning
• Clarified the stimulus generalization definition
• Redefined operant conditioning
• Redefined the schedule of reinforcement
• Clarified continuous and partial reinforcement schedules
• Redefined the variable-ratio schedule
• Clarified the results of exposure to media aggression
• Noted that behavior modification can help students study more
• Added APA task force findings on violent video game play
Chapter 7—Memory
• Discussed highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM)
• Added information on the meaning of memories
• Enhanced the discussion of false memories
• Clarified the sensory memory explanation
• Redefined chunk
• Clarified the explanation of chunk
• Redefined mnemonics
• Clarified the description of memory stores in working memory
• Clarified procedural memory
• Added the term implicit memory
• Clarified the description of engram
• Clarified the flashbulb memory description
• Clarified similarities and differences between cultures in memory
• Clarified relearning and the importance of practice
• Refined the description of keyword technique
• Explained the value of forgetting regarding relearning
• Explained conditions under which eyewitness memories are
Chapter 8—Cognition and Language
• Added information on the value of video gaming for cognitive
• Discussed attention span declines
• Included a new definition of reasoning
• Redefined familiarity heuristic, with a new example
• Clarified how we represent problems to ourselves
• Added a new definition of means-ends analysis
• Added a new definition of insight and clarified the presentation
• Added new examples of enhancing insight in humans
• Clarified the definition of functional fixedness
• Removed the term “mental set”
• Redefined divergent thinking
• Redefined cognitive complexity
• Added a new definition of convergent thinking
• Redefined semantics
• Clarified telegraphic speech
• Clarified overgeneralization
• Added new contrary evidence to the nativist approach
• Clarified the definition of interactionist approaches to language
• Discussed the idea that language fosters reasoning
• Clarified the linguistic-relativity hypothesis
• Added new statistics on multilingual students
• Discussed the relevance of cognitive bias to other areas, such as
• Discussed behavioral economics
• Introduced information on artificial intelligence and Siri and
• Noted changes in creativity with aging
Chapter 9—Intelligence
• Redefined fluid intelligence
• Redefined crystallized intelligence
• Clarified Alfred Binet’s role
• Added a new definition of reliability
• Added a new definition of validity
• Added a new definition of familial intellectual disability
• Redefined intellectual disability
• Clarified full inclusion
• Clarified the virtues of the intellectually gifted
• Added a feature on acquired savant syndrome
• Added a new prologue about a young, gifted genius
Chapter 10—Motivation and Emotion
• Added a feature regarding research on the biggest losers’ inability
to maintain their weight loss
• Added a new prologue on excessive weight loss and social media
• Clarified Maslow’s view of esteem
• Clarified the self-determination theory
• Added a new definition of need for achievement
• Clarified the James-Lange theory of emotions
• Clarified the Schachter-Singer theory of emotions
• Updated the description of the facial-affect program
• Discussed the increase in obesity across the globe
• Discussed the heritability of eating disorders
• Included research on functional differences in the orbitofrontal
cortex involved in eating disorders
Chapter 11—Sexuality and Gender
• Added statistics on sexting
• Augmented the discussion of gender identity choices
• Added new gender identity labels
• Discussed gender identities on Facebook and in the media
• Clarified gender roles
• Included new figures on sexual harassment
• Clarified statistics on women’s earnings compared to men’s
• Added new figures on the earnings gap between women and men
• Included data on the relationship between the frequency of sex
and relationship satisfaction
• Clarified beliefs about gender equality in the workplace
• Clarified differences in nonverbal behavior between men and
• Clarified the nature of sex differences in cognitive abilities
• Clarified the nature of evolutionary arguments about gender
• Expanded the explanation of the biosocial explanation of gender
• Clarified the use of gay and lesbian labels
• Clarified the biological and genetic causes of sexual orientation
• Redefined transgender
• Clarified the distinction between transgender and intersex persons
• Clarified the information on anger as a cause of rape
Page xxxii
• Added a new definition of delayed ejaculation disorder
• Clarified the female orgasmic disorder
• Enhanced the discussion of the benefits of sex for relationship
• Included information on the experience of rape as cause of frontal
cortex impairment
• Added statistics on female genital cutting victims in the United
Chapter 12—Development
• Discussed the use of mitochondria in in vitro fertilization
• Clarified the vision capabilities of neonates
• Updated information on the changes in cognitive abilities over the
life span
• Clarified the benefits of play
• Clarified Erikson’s trust-versus- mistrust stage
• Clarified Erikson’s autonomy-versus- shame-and-doubt stage
• Clarified Erikson’s industry-versus- inferiority stage
• Clarified the information processing approach
• Clarified Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development
• Changed the presentation of scaffolding
• Clarified the presentation of puberty
• Clarified the discussion of spermarche
• Clarified Kohlberg’s Level 2 morality
• Clarified Kohlberg’s Level 3 morality
• Clarified adolescence as a period of relative tranquility
• Redefined personal fables
• Clarified the discussion of culture- specific rites of passage
• Clarified emerging adulthood
• Redefined genetic programming theories of aging
• Updated statistics on Alzheimer’s disease
• Added new research on slowing the declines of Alzheimer’s
• Added new statistics on Facebook use by adolescents
• Enhanced the discussion of mental health issues for early puberty
• Discussed cyberbullying as a cause of suicide
Chapter 13—Personality
• Add a new prologue on the Lance Armstrong case
• Discussed the stability of personality across generations
• Redefined ego
• Clarified the discussion of ego’s mediating role
• Clarified the discussion of Freud’s Oedipal conflict in boys and
• Added specificity to the description of psychoanalytic theory
• Added a new definition of inferiority complex
• Redefined the Allport cardinal trait
• Redefined the Allport central trait
• Refined factor analysis
• Clarified criticisms of trait theory
• Clarified the distinction between psychodynamic, trait, and
learning theories
• Clarified the relationship harmony concept
• Clarified temporary reductions in self-esteem
• Clarified research studies on twins separated early in life
• Clarified Rogers’ notion of self-concept
• Replaced the term norm with test norm
• Added a new definition of test norm
• Added a new definition of projective test
• Clarified projective test criticisms
Chapter 14—Health Psychology: Stress, Coping, and Well-Being
• Added the concept of posttraumatic growth
• Added a feature on training physicians to convey bad news
• Added data on Facebook as a source of negative health outcomes
• Updated medical error death statistics
• Discussed nontraditional forms of PTSD for combat veterans
• Discussed e-health communication
• Added statistics on electronic- cigarette use
• Added discussion on e-cigarette use and its effect on quitting
traditional cigarette smoking
• Discussed the link between social relationships and health
• Clarified the biological and psychological consequences of stress
• Clarified the critique of general adaption syndrome
• Clarified the effects of stress on lymphocytes
• Clarified techniques for coping with stress
• Included data on the incidence of smoking and disease among
whites versus African Americans
• Clarified the social causes of smoking
• Discussed the relationship between poverty and sadness
• Added information on buying time savers versus buying goods
and the relationship to happiness
• Added a new figure on smoking incidence
Chapter 15—Psychological Disorders
• Added a new case study of a woman with anxiety disorder
• Added references to magic and spells as explanations for
abnormal behavior
• Add a feature on increases in self- reported psychological
• Removed the explication of historical change in the DSM
• Discussed epigenetic approaches to schizophrenia
• Discussed the relationship between homelessness and
psychological disorders
• Added new statistics on the mentally ill homeless population
• Clarified deviation from the typical definition of abnormality
• Clarified deviation from an ideal definition of abnormality
• Clarified the discussion of insanity
• Explicitly defined abnormal behavior
• Clarified the importance of the neurological basis of
psychological disorders
• Clarified criticisms of psychoanalytic theory
• Added a new example of rationality of negative emotions
regarding cognitive perspectives
• Clarified the discussion of the humanistic perspective
• Added a new definition of the sociocultural perspective
• Clarified the atheoretical, descriptive approach of the DSM
• Clarified the lack of objective danger in phobic stimuli
• Redefined compulsion
• Clarified the definition of illness anxiety disorder
• Clarified the discussion of dissociative identity disorder
• Redefined mood disorder
• Clarified the causes of gender differences in depression in women
Page xxxiii
• Clarified the label and explanation of internal unconscious
conflicts as a cause of depression
• Changed “inappropriate emotional displays” to “inappropriate
emotions” in the discussion of schizophrenia
• Added an explanation of the action of glutamate in treating
• Added material on the genes responsible for schizophrenia
• Discussed gray matter differences in the brains of people with
• Clarified and qualified the psychoanalytic explanations of
• Clarified the predispositional model of schizophrenia
• Clarified the lack of distress for those with personality disorders
• Clarified the explanation of borderline personality disorder
• Redefined neurocognitive disorders
• Clarified the statistics on the prevalence of psychological
• Condensed and clarified the discussion of cross-cultural
influences on definitions of abnormal behavior
Chapter 16—Treatment of Psychological Disorders
• Redefined psychotherapy
• Redefined biomedical therapy
• Reframed the discussion of psychodynamic therapies (versus
• Redefined psychoanalysis
• Clarified free association
• Redefined the behavioral approaches to therapy
• Clarified aversive therapy
• Revised the discussion of aversion therapy
• Clarified the definition of systematic desensitization
• Revised the discussion of contingency contracting
• Added a new definition of observational learning
• Reframed the discussion of behavioral techniques
• Expanded the definition of unconditional positive regard
• Clarified the discussion of contemporary versions of clientcentered
• Revised the discussion of interpersonal therapy effectiveness
• Revised the discussion of the goals of family therapy
• Clarified the definition of self-help therapy
• Clarified the discussion of the effectiveness of therapy in general
versus specific kinds of therapy
• Added a new case study on use of deep brain stimulation
• Discussed the use of online therapy
• Reframed the distinction between biomedical approaches and
other treatments
• Updated the definition of drug therapy
• Clarified the inhibition of neurotransmitter transmission
• Discussed virtual reality exposure therapy
• Added psychotherapy to the biomedical treatments for
• Added a discussion of brain scan neurofeedback for treatment
• Clarified the prefrontal lobotomy discussion
• Clarified the drawbacks to biomedical therapies
• Revised the definition of deinstitutionalization
• Added material on drug treatments that is more explicitly linked
to the neuroscience chapter
• Discussed cognitive appraisal retraining on academic tasks
• Added information on memory deficits as side effect of
antidepressant drugs
• Referenced Satir’s family therapy work
Chapter 17—Social Psychology
• Added a new prologue on Dylann Roof in South Carolina
• Discussed mentoring approaches to reducing self-stereotyping
• Clarified the description of the warm-cold person perception
• Clarified the example of fundamental attribution error
• Redefined norms
• Clarified the description of the foot-in-the-door technique
• Clarified the door-in-the-face technique
• Clarified the effect of proximity on liking
• Clarified the mere exposure effect
• Clarified the effect of similarity on liking
• Clarified the relationship between physical attractiveness and a
general attraction
• Clarified frustration-aggression approaches
• Clarified diffusion of responsibility explanations of helping
• Added information on global warming and aggression
• Added research on microaggressions


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